Journal of the stylistic of Persian poem and prose
Journal of the stylistic of Persian poem and prose شماره 91

volume Number : 16
number In Volume : 9
issue Number : 91

Journal of the stylistic of Persian poem and prose
volume Number 16، number In Volume 9، ، issue Number 91

Comparative investigation of the war strategies of Kushnameh epic with historical sources of ancient Persia

Fateme Ghalavand , Zahra Ghalavand (Author in Charge)

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: KushNameh, Iranshah Ibn Abul khair "s work is one of the great epics of the 6th century which revolves around the adventures of kush pil dandan, Zahhak "s nephew. This epic books contains various contents about the history, manners. customs. culture and science during the period of Zahhak " rule and fereydun period. This article intends to answer the questions what was the war tactics and war strategies in the Kushnameh and compare it with historical texts. The purpose of this article is to examine the issues related to the war in KushNameh with an interdisciplinary approach and historical perspective METHODOLOGY: The present study is based on the descriptive – analytical method in the field of library studies FINDINGS: The battle formations and tricks of war in KushNameh is correspond with Historical texts CONCLUSION: The results of the research indicate the battle strategies in kushnameh match with the war and its tactics in ancient Iran in historical writings. This shows that Kushnameh creator used the historical and literary texts of ancient Persia

Keyword
war , kushnameh , historical sources , ancient Persia

Reference
  • Akhavan Zanjani, Jalil. (1976). "Panjgan". Iranian studies. (2) 6, p. 281.
  • Altheim, Franz. (1966). Writings about the history and culture of Parthians, translated by Hoshang Sadeghi, Tehran: Organization of Heritage and Handicrafts, p. 34.
  • Azari, Alaeddin. (1971). "The role of the elephant in the wars of ancient Iran", historical reviews, (1) 6, p. 130.
  • Bal’ami, Abu Ali. (1974). Tarikh Bal’ami, revision of Malik Al-Sho’ara Bahar, Tehran: Zavvar, pp. 149-150.
  • Banoo goshasb name. (1975). revised by Mojtaba Minovi, Tehran: Kharazmi, p. 61.
  • Belazari, Ahmad ibn Yahya. (1988). Fotuh al-Boldan, Tehran: Noqre, p. 523.
  • Briyan, Pir. (2015). Achaemenid Empire, vol. 1, translated by Nahid Foroughian, Tehran: Qatre, p. 56.
  • Christensen, Arthur. (1957). Iran during the Sasanian era, translated by Rashid Yasemi, Tehran: Ibn Sina.
  • Dandamayev. (1979.) Achaemenid political and economic history, Mirkamal Nabipour, Tehran: Raja, pp. 18-22.
  • Fakhr Modabbar, Mubarakshah. (1967). Adab Al-Harb and Al-Shuja'ah, Ahmad Sohaili Khansari., Tehran: Iqbal.
  • Farrokh, Kaveh and Karimian, Gholamreza. (2014). "Provisions and support of the Sassanid army in the war", Payam Baharestan, (26) 8, p. 236.
  • Ferdowsi, Abulqasem. (2000). Shahnameh, Vol. 3, 4, Tehran: Qatre.
  • Fraser, James George. (2004). Golden branch. Translated by Kazem Firouzmand. Tehran: Aghaz. P. 271.
  • Gislan, Rika. (2004). Four generals of the Sassanid Empire based on the evidence of seal studies, Siroos Nematolehzadeh, Tehran: Cultural Heritage and Tourism of the Country, p. 35.
  • Haqiqat, Abdul Rafie. (1965). Five hundred years of Parthian rule, Tehran: Koomesh, p. 349.
  • Herodotus. (1983). History of Herodotus, translated by Vahid Mazandarani, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural.
  • Ibn Balkhi. (2006). Farsnameh, revised by Lestrange, Guy and Nicholson, Tehran: Asatir, p. 48.
  • Ibn Qutibe, Abdullah Ibn Muslim. (1418 A.H.). Oyun al-Akhbar, edited by Yusuf Ali Tavil, 4 vols., Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-Elamiye.
  • Inastrantsev, Konstantin. (2004). Research on the Sassanids, translated by Kazem Kazemzadeh. Tehran: Scientific and Cultural. P. 42.
  • Iranshah Ibn Abi al-Khair. (1998). Kushnamah, edited by Jalal Matini, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural.
  • Ja’fari Dehaghi, Mahmoud. (2015). Guide to Middle Persian inscriptions (Sasanian Pahlavi) Tehran: Samt, p. 54.
  • Ketzias. (2010). A summary of the history of Ketzias from Cyrus to Ardeshir, kamyab Khalili, Tehran: Karang, p. 60.
  • Khandemir, Ghiyasuddin. (2001). Habib al-Sir's history in the news of human beings, Tehran: Khayyam, p. 182.
  • M’atoofi, Asadullah. (2003). The history of four thousand years of the Iranian army, war and warfare on the Iranian plateau from the civilization of Elam to 1320, vol. 1,2, Tehran: Iman.
  • Marcelin, Amin. (1931). The war of Shapur Zul-Aktaf with Roman Emperor Julianus, translated by Mohammad Sadegh Atabaki, Tehran: Shuraye Nezam Office.
  • Masoudi, Abulhasan Ali ibn Hossein. (2003). Moruj al-Zahab, vol. 1, translated by Abu Ghasem Payandeh, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural, p. 241.
  • Minoy Kherad. (1975). translated by Ahmad Tafzzoli, Tehran: Farhang Iran Foundation, p. 77.
  • Mostofi, Hamdollah. (2014). Tarikh gozide, edited by Abdul Hossein Navaei, Tehran: AmirKabir, p. 84.
  • Natal Khanleri, Parviz. (1934). "Army and War in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh", Mehr (5 and 6) 2, p. 577.
  • Nizam-ul-Molk, Abu Ali Hassan. (1965). Siyasatname, edited by Mohammad Qazvini, Tehran: Zavvar, p. 144.
  • Nourbakhsh, Hassan. (2003). Iranian Seafaring, Tehran: Cultural Research Publication, p. 28.
  • Pirnia, Hassan. (1996). History of Ancient Iran, Vol. 1, 2, 3, Tehran: World of Books.
  • Plutarch. (2001). Iranians and Greeks according to Plutarch, Ahmad Kasravi, Tehran: Jami, p. 20.
  • Pourdavoud, Ibrahim and Jorbozedar, Abdul Karim. (2012). Zin abzar: War Tools of Ancient Iran, Tehran: Asatir, p. 333.
  • Procopius. (2013). Wars of Iran and Rome, translated by Mohammad Sa’eedi, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural.
  • Rashed Mohassel, Mohammad Reza. (2006). Guards and Guards in Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, Shahnameh Research (First Office), Mashhad: Farhangsaraye Ferdowsi, p. 120.
  • Sa’alebi, Abu Mansour. (1989). Tarikh Sa’alebi (Ghorr al-Akhbar). Mohammad Fazaeli, Tehran: Noqre, p. 428.
  • Sisili, Diodor. (2005). Historical Library, Ismail Sangari and Hamed Bikas Shorkaei, Tehran: Jami, p. 190.
  • Tabari, Mohammad ibn Jarir. (2004). Tarikh Tabari, Tehran: Asatir.
  • Visperd. (1987). translated by Ebrahim Pourdavoud, Tehran: Tehran University Press.
  • Xenophon. (2005). The Return of Ten Thousand People (Anabasis), translated by Manouchehr Amiri, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural.
  • Xenophon. (2013). Korooshnameh, translated by Reza Mashayekhi, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural, pp. 67-68; 71-70.