- Count View : 35
- Doi: 10.22034/bahareadab.2023 .16 .6937
Journal of the stylistic of Persian poem and prose
volume Number 16، number In Volume 7، ، issue Number 89
Comparative Analysis of Existential Irony in the Rubaiyat of Khayyam and Masnavis of Attar
Seyedeh Somayeh Sharifi , Betul Mahdavi (Author in Charge), Farzad Baloo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The satirist uses methods and tools to ridiculously explain all kinds of anomalies. Irony, as one of the rhetorical tricks of humor, is divided into many types, including existential or philosophical irony. In this kind of irony, existence, God and the action of the Almighty are the target of satire. Objection to God and complaining about the system of existence are in opposition to the subject of the meeting place of the mystics and the majority of theologians, that is, the promise to the good system. METHODOLOGY: This article is written based on the descriptive and analytical research method and using library tools. The statistical community of the research includes Khayyam"s quatrains and Attar"s masnavis: Asrarnameh, Mosibatnameh, Elahinameh, and Manteq al-teyr. The present study, which has been prepared in a descriptive-analytical manner, examines the irony of existence in Khayyam"s quatrains in the place of a philosopher"s mental exudations in comparison with Attar"s Masnavi as an extract of prominent mystical thoughts. FINDINGS: In 21cases of using the irony of existence in Khayyam"s quatrains include 12astonishments of the philosophy of life,7criticisms of the destruction of beings and 2protests against the lack of justice. In Attar"s Masnavi, only once the philosophy of life has been destroyed 4 times,13 times the category of poverty, and in 5cases the bewilderment of lovers has been satirically criticized. CONCLUSION: According to the findings Unlike Khayyam, who indirectly challenged the work and burden of existence by referring to the heavens and the universe, she openly targeted God in the form of a narration with a sarcastic tone and took advantage of the safe position of the free rationales. Philosophical sadness is much more pronounced in the quatrains containing the irony of Khayyam"s existence, and only in two quatrains involving the lack of justice, his pain and social concern can be expressed; But Attar"s pain in expressing his criticisms and objections is both philosophical and social, as well as caused by romantic passion and helplessness.
existential irony , The theme of the protests , Rubaiyat of Khayyam , Masnavis of Attar
- Amin Razavi, Mahdi. (2016). Sahbaye- Kherad, translator: Majdoldin Keyvani, Tehran: Sokhan.
- Ashrafzadeh, Reza. (1994). Poetic manifestation of mystery and narrative in Attar Neishabouri's poetry. Tehran: Asatir.
- Aslani, Mohammadreza. (2015). A Dictionary of Humorous Vocabularies and Terms, Tehran: Karvan.
- Attar Neishaburi, Fariduddin. (2013). Manteq al-teyr, by Mohammad Reza Shafi'i Kodkani, Tehran: Sokhan.
- Bahremand, Zahra. (2008). “Irony and its difference with humor and rhetorical arts”. Persian Language and Literature Quarterly, No. 45, pp. 9-34.
- Balo, Farzad & Rezapour, Reza. (2017). “Me and you in the mystical field and a conversation in Attar's sonnets”. Proceedings of the 5th Literary Text Research Conference, Volume 1, pp. 68-82.
- Dad, Sima. (2018). Dictionary of Literary Terms. Tehran: Morvarid.
- Davoudi Moghadam, Farideh. (2012). “Grotesque in the stories of Attar's madmen”, Journal of Iranian Literature History. No. 3/71, pp. 54-75.
- Elhambakhsh, Seyyed Mahmoud & Hossein Abadi, Maryam. (2016). “The madmen of the protesting faction of the society in Attar era”. Two quarterly studies of Persian language and literature, pp. 70-100.
- Forozanfar, Badi Al-Zaman. (1974). Description and criticism and analysis of the works of Sheikh Farid al-Din Mohammad Attar Nishaburi. Tehran: Association of Cultural Artifacts and Magnificence.
- Fotuhi, Mahmoud. (2013). Stylology of theories, approaches and methods, Tehran: Sokhan.
- Godini, Mohammad. (2013). Khayami's thoughts in Persian poetry, (from the beginning to today), Tehran: Tirgan.
- Halabi, Ali Asghar. (1985). An introduction to humor and humor in Iran. Tehran: Peyk.
- Ibn Asir (1966). Alkamel. Beirut: Dar Sader and Dar Beirut.
- Javadi, Hassan. (2005). History of humor in Persian literature. Tehran: Karvan.
- Kazemifar, Moein. (2012). “The political and social function of wise lunatics based on Attar's Masnavi anecdotes”, Literary Studies, 24th issue, pp. 83-104.
- Khayyam, Omar ibn Ibrahim. (2002). Quatrains of Khayyam. With the correction, introduction and margins of Mohammad Ali Foroughi and Qasim Ghani, with the effort of Bahauddin Khorramshahi, Tehran: Nahid.
- Mahdavi, Betoul & Sharif Dimajani, Golnar. (2015). “Nizam Ahsan in the thought of Khayyam”. International Persian Literature Congress.
- Meqdadi, Bahram. (1999). Dictionary of terms of literary criticism (from Plato to the present day). Tehran: Fekr-e- rooz.
- Modarresi, Fatemeh. (2007). “Mystic level and crazy arrogance in Attar's masnavis”. Academy letter, pp. 85-106.
- Moke, Colin Douglas. (2010). irony Translated by Hasan Afshar, Tehran: Markaz.
- Nasri, Abdallah & Etimadinia, Mojtaba. (2012). "Formulations of the Problem of Evil in the Works of Muslim Philosophers", Teachings of Islamic Philosophy, No. 12, pp. 117-140.
- Pournamdarian, Taghi. (2001). In the shadow of the sun, Tehran: Sokhsn.
- Rahimi, Fatemeh. (2007). Divine madness and the subtleties of monotheism of the divine admirers from the point of view of Attar Neishabouri”, Erfan Specialized Quarterly, 5 (18), pp. 222-254.
- Sadr, Roya. (2002). Twenty years of comedy. First edition, Tehran: Hermes.
- Shafiei kadkani, Mohamadreza. (2007). Mosibatname, Tehran: Sokhan.
- Shafiei kadkani, Mohamadreza. (2008). Elahi Nameh, Tehran: Sokhan.
- Shafiei Kadkani, Mohammad Reza. (2002). Asrarnameh, by Tehran: Sokhan
- Shafi'i Kadkani, Mohammad Reza. (2016). This is the chemistry of being, the third volume. About Hafez, Tehran: Sokhan.
- Shamisa, Siros. (1997). Meanings and expression. 8th edition, Tehran: Mitra.
- Yalmeha, Ahmadreza & Salimi, Yasin. (2014). “A comparative study of Khayyam Neishabouri's social thought in sociology”, a collection of articles of the 10th International Conference on the Promotion of Persian Language and Literature, Mohaghegh Ardebili University. pp. 844-857.
- Zarrainkoob, Abdul Hossein. (1994). with the caravan Tehran: Elmi.