Journal of the stylistic of Persian poem and prose
Journal of the stylistic of Persian poem and prose شماره 89

volume Number : 16
number In Volume : 7
issue Number : 89

Journal of the stylistic of Persian poem and prose
volume Number 16، number In Volume 7، ، issue Number 89

Comparative Analysis of Existential Irony in the Rubaiyat of Khayyam and Masnavis of Attar

Seyedeh Somayeh Sharifi , Betul Mahdavi (Author in Charge), Farzad Baloo

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The satirist uses methods and tools to ridiculously explain all kinds of anomalies. Irony, as one of the rhetorical tricks of humor, is divided into many types, including existential or philosophical irony. In this kind of irony, existence, God and the action of the Almighty are the target of satire. Objection to God and complaining about the system of existence are in opposition to the subject of the meeting place of the mystics and the majority of theologians, that is, the promise to the good system. METHODOLOGY: This article is written based on the descriptive and analytical research method and using library tools. The statistical community of the research includes Khayyam"s quatrains and Attar"s masnavis: Asrarnameh, Mosibatnameh, Elahinameh, and Manteq al-teyr. The present study, which has been prepared in a descriptive-analytical manner, examines the irony of existence in Khayyam"s quatrains in the place of a philosopher"s mental exudations in comparison with Attar"s Masnavi as an extract of prominent mystical thoughts. FINDINGS: In 21cases of using the irony of existence in Khayyam"s quatrains include 12astonishments of the philosophy of life,7criticisms of the destruction of beings and 2protests against the lack of justice. In Attar"s Masnavi, only once the philosophy of life has been destroyed 4 times,13 times the category of poverty, and in 5cases the bewilderment of lovers has been satirically criticized. CONCLUSION: According to the findings Unlike Khayyam, who indirectly challenged the work and burden of existence by referring to the heavens and the universe, she openly targeted God in the form of a narration with a sarcastic tone and took advantage of the safe position of the free rationales. Philosophical sadness is much more pronounced in the quatrains containing the irony of Khayyam"s existence, and only in two quatrains involving the lack of justice, his pain and social concern can be expressed; But Attar"s pain in expressing his criticisms and objections is both philosophical and social, as well as caused by romantic passion and helplessness.

existential irony , The theme of the protests , Rubaiyat of Khayyam , Masnavis of Attar

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